For the assessment and contrast of nonsouthern lynching and lynching that is southern see Pfeifer, ed., Lynching beyond Dixie.

For the assessment and contrast of nonsouthern lynching and lynching that is southern see Pfeifer, ed., Lynching beyond Dixie.

For the assessment and contrast of nonsouthern lynching and lynching that is southern see Pfeifer, ed., Lynching beyond Dixie.

The Cattle Towns (New York, 1968) for the view that the West was not especially violent, see Robert R. Dykstra.

For the characterization of this debate a few years later on, see Robert R. Dykstra, “Quantifying the crazy West: The Problematic Statistics of Frontier Violence, ” Western Historical Quarterly, 40 (Sept. 2009), 321–47. On western bloodshed, but because of the assertion that frontier mayhem ended up being overstated, see Eugene Hollon, Frontier Violence: Another Look (ny, 1978). When it comes to argument that the frontier was violent, however in particular means, see Roger D. McGrath, Gunfighters, Highwaymen, and Vigilantes: Violence from the Frontier (Berkeley, 1984), 247–60. On high homicide prices in counties in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona, see Clare V. McKanna, Homicide, Race, and Justice when you look at the United states West, 1880–1920 (Tucson, 1997). For the interpretation associated with the reputation for homicide across stripchat United states regions that looks at broader habits and particularity that is regional see Randolph Roth, United states Homicide (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). Leonard, Lynching in Colorado; Carrigan, Making of the Lynching heritage; Gonzales-Day, Lynching within the western. On Kansas, see Brent M. S. Campney, “‘Light Is Bursting Upon the World! ’: White Supremacy and Racist Violence against Blacks in Reconstruction Kansas, ” Western Historical Quarterly, 41 (summer time 2010), 171–94); Brent M. S. Campney, “‘And This in complimentary Kansas’: Racist Violence, Ebony and White Resistance, Geographical Particularity, in addition to ‘Free State’ Narrative in Kansas, 1865 to 1914” (Ph.D. Diss., Emory University, 2007); and Christopher C. Lovett, “A Public Burning: Race, Intercourse, while the Lynching of Fred Alexander, ” Kansas History: A Journal associated with the Central Plains, 33 (summer time 2010), 94–115. On mob violence in fin-de-siecle southwest Missouri and Arkansas that is northwest Kimberly Harper, White Man’s paradise: The Lynching and Expulsion of Blacks in the Southern Ozarks, 1894–1909 (Fayetteville, 2010). For a 1942 lynching in Missouri’s bootheel, see Dominic J. Capeci, The Lynching of Cleo Wright (Lexington, Ky., 1998). For a full research study of mob physical violence in Indian Territory in 1898, see Daniel F. Littlefield Jr., Seminole Burning: a tale of Racial Vengeance (Jackson, 1996). Zagrando, naacp Crusade against Lynching, 5. On lynching in northeast Texas, see Brandon Jett, “The Bloody Red River: Lynching and Racial Violence in Northeast Texas, 1890–1930” (M.A. Thesis, Texas State University at San Marcos, 2012). On vigilantism in Montana in the 1860s, see Frederick Allen, a good Orderly Lynching: The Montana Vigilantes (Norman, 2004). For comprehensive state and territory listings of western, midwestern, and lynchings that are northeastern see “Appendix: Lynchings into the Northeast, Midwest, and West, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 261–317. For a current evaluation of midwestern history, see Jon K. Lauck, The Lost area: Toward a Revival of Midwestern History (Iowa City, 2013). Feimster, Southern Horrors. For the interpretation of females and kids in western lynching, see Helen McLure, “‘Who Dares to create This Female a Woman? ’: Lynching, Gender, and Culture when you look at the Nineteenth-Century U.S. West, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 21–53.

On postbellum lynchings of whites in Alabama along with other states that are southern see John Howard Ratliff, “‘In Hot Blood’: White-on-White Lynching together with Privileges of Race into the American South, 1889–1910” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Alabama, 2007). Walter Howard, Extralegal Violence in Florida through the 1930s (Cranbury, 1995). Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 19–60; Carrigan, Making of a Lynching heritage, 112–31; Gilles Vandal, Rethinking Southern Violence: Homicides in Post–Civil War Louisiana, 1866–1884 (Columbus, 2000), 90–109; Baker, This Mob Will Clearly just just simply Take my entire life; Bruce E. Baker, just exactly What Reconstruction Meant: historic Memory into the US South (Charlottesville, 2007), 84–87; Williams, They Left Great Marks on me personally; Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi, 4–16; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 81–87. For a present interpretation of racial physical physical violence into the Reconstruction Southern, see Carole Emberton, Beyond Redemption: Race, Violence, in addition to United states South after the Civil War (Chicago, 2013). Pfeifer, Roots of Harsh Justice, 32–46. For information documenting 56 mob executions of slave and free americans that are african the antebellum Southern, see “Lynchings of African Us citizens within the Southern, 1824–1862, ” ibid., 93–99. For a treatment that is synthetic of in American history that features discussion associated with the colonial and antebellum eras and slavery, see Manfred Berg, Popular Justice: a brief history of Lynching in the us (Lanham, 2011).

Nationwide Association when it comes to Advancement of Colored People, Thirty several years of Lynching in the usa. On methodological issues with lynching data, specially when it comes to regions outside of the Southern, as well as on approaches for compiling an inventory that is national see Lisa D. Cook, “Converging to a nationwide Lynching Database: current Developments, ” Historical techniques, 45 (April–June 2012), 55–63. On methodological dilemmas active in the quantification of lynching, see Michael Ayers Trotti, “What Counts: Trends in Racial Violence into the Postbellum Southern, ” Journal of American History, 100 (Sept. 2013), 375–400. I really do not share Michael Ayers Trotti’s view that methodological challenges, significant since they are, may outweigh some great benefits of counting US lynchings.

On British and Irish influences on United states lynching and analysis of U.S. Mob physical physical violence in a context that is global see Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 7–11, 67–81, 88–91. Regarding the community that is norwegian collective murder of a Norwegian farmer accused of mistreating their household in Trempeleau County, Wisconsin, in 1889, see Jane M. Pederson, “Gender, Justice, and a Wisconsin Lynching, 1889–1890, ” Agricultural History, 67 (Spring 1993), 65–82. For the argument that involvement in lynching physical physical violence against African Us citizens had been a way for Irish, Czechs, and Italians in Brazos County, Texas, to say “whiteness, ” see Cynthia Skove Nevels, Lynching to Belong: Claiming Whiteness through Racial Violence (College facility, 2007). On lynching as well as other types of collective physical physical violence in structural terms across worldwide countries, see Roberta Senechal de la Roche, “Collective physical physical Violence as Social Control, ” Sociological Forum, 11 (March 1996), 97–128. Manfred Berg and Simon Wendt, eds., Globalizing Lynching History: Vigilantism and Extralegal Punishment from a worldwide Perspective (ny, 2011); Carrigan and Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath.

When it comes to argument that U.S. Lynching into the long century that is nineteenth respected lynching violence in modern Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa as a significant episode in contested state formation, see Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 88–91. This is simply not to deny or elide key structural differences in the contexts for mob physical violence among these particular countries. For contrasting interpretations of present Latin linchamientos that are american see Angelina Snodgrass Godoy, “When ‘Justice’ Is Criminal: Lynchings in modern Latin America, ” Theory and community, 33 (Dec. 2004), 621–51; and Christopher Krupa, “Histories in Red: methods of Seeing Lynching in Ecuador, ” American Ethnologist, 36 (Feb. 2009), 20–39. For a study of nonstate violence in present years throughout the diverse parts of sub-Saharan Africa, see Bruce E. Baker, using the legislation into Their Own Hands: Lawless Law Enforcers in Africa (Aldershot, 2002).

Author records

I will be grateful to Edward T. Linenthal, Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bruce E. Baker, plus an anonymous reviewer for their commentary on a youthful form of this essay.